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Major Depression or major depressive disorder causes ongoing, extreme feelings of sadness, helplessness, hopeless, and irritability. These feelings are usually a noticeable change from what’s “normal” for you, and they last for more than two weeks. It is a mood disorder accompanied by: 

  • Lasting sad, anxious, or “empty” mood

  • Loss of interest in almost all activities

  • Appetite and weight changes

  • Changes in sleep patterns, such as inability to sleep or sleeping too much

  • Slowing of physical activity, speech, and thinking OR agitation, increased restlessness, and irritability

  • Decreased energy, feeling tired or "slowed down" almost every day

  • Ongoing feelings of worthlessness and/or feelings of undue guilt

  • Trouble concentrating or making decisions


Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is type of depression. It happens during certain seasons of the year—most often fall or winter. 

There are two types of SAD:

  1. Fall-onset. This is also called "winter depression." Symptoms of depression begin in the late fall to early winter months and ease during the summer months.

  2. Spring-onset. This is also called "summer depression." Symptoms of depression begin in late spring to early summer. This type is much less common.

The following are the most common symptoms of Seasonal Affective Disorder:

  • Increased sleep and daytime drowsiness

  • Loss of interest and pleasure in activities formerly enjoyed

  • Social withdrawal and increased sensitivity to rejection

  • Irritability and anxiety

  • Feelings of guilt and hopelessness

  • Fatigue, or low energy level


A chronic, recurring condition that includes cycles of extreme lows (or depression) and extreme highs (called hypomania or mania).

Some Depressive symptoms may include:

  • Constant sad, anxious, or empty mood

  • Loss of interest in things that you once enjoyed, including sex

  • Feeling restless or irritable

  • Inability to focus, think, or make decisions

  • Low energy, fatigue, being slowed down

Some Manic symptoms may include:

  • Inflated self-esteem

  • Need for less rest and sleep

  • Easily distracted  or irritable

  • Racing thoughts

  • Physical agitation

  • Risky, aggressive, or destructive behavior

  • Talking a lot and talking fast

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